In June 1940, Paris fell and the city's lights went out. The world's cultural capital had become the Nazis' greatest prize. Following its cultural tradition from the century before - having given birth to major artistic movements like Impressionism, Cubism and Surrealism - Paris remained home to the greatest artists, writers and composers, from Joyce to Picasso. After the invasion of France many artists fled and those still in Paris had to survive: Matisse kept out of view but Picasso could not avoid Nazi visitors. A few, like Beckett, joined the Resistance. Some were arrested and died in German hands. Others entertained the enemy.